ГТБ-Скития – нов сорт обикновен зрял фасул (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)
Димитър Генчев • Иван Киряков
Добруджански земеделски институт - Генерал Тошево, Генерал Тошево, България
The main problem of dry bean production technology is harvesting. The
harvesting systems depends on the growth habit. In the growing technology, which
uses a low level of mechanization and harvesting is manual, the type of plant is not
important, except when the morphology negatively correlates with productivity.
The growth habit most suitable for direct harvesting with combine is growth type
IIa, with an erect plant, located high and non-shattering pods, white seeds, resistant
to economically important diseases. Moreover, varieties of this growth type are
characterized by high yield in the highest stability. The erect plant provides better
light penetration in the crop, better photosynthetic activity and higher productivity.
It provides better crop ventilation, less problems with diseases and minimizes
problems associated with frequent rainfalls during harvesting. Therefore, breeding
at Dobroudja Agricultural Institute (DAI) - G. Toshevo is directed primarily to
wards developing varieties of dry bean with this feature. Six varieties of dry bean
have been developed with growth habit type IIa - ‘Prelom’, ‘Abritus’, ‘Ludogorie’,‘GTB-Ustrem’, ‘GTB-Blyan’ and ‘GTB-Vezhen’.
Variety ‘GTB-Skitiya’ was developed by Dimitar Genchev and Ivan Kiryakov,
DAI – G. Toshevo through repeated selection of individual plants in the cross DG
6-26 [DG 98-73-6 [Oreol / А769 // Prisad /3/ G2883 / Desislava /7/ SuavesINIA
88-57-A3 // 80-7-11-12 / G2883 /3/ Oreol /5/ Prelom / Zornitsa // Trudovets2 /
Dagonovo83 /3/ Oreol /6/ GNStar / Garmen /8/ 80-7-11-4 / 84AR235 // Relom /
80-7-11-12] /8/ DG 5-36 [DG 1-66 [VAX3 /4/ DG 92-33 (80-7-11-12 / Prelom
/3/ Prelom / Zornitsa // Trudovets2 / Dagonovo83)] /5/ DG 1-80 [AIYa /4/ Oreol /
А769 // Garmen /3/ Prelom / Zornitsa // Desislava /]]].
The vegetation period of ‘GTB-Skitiya’ is 84 ± 4 d, 3 days more than variety
‘GTB-Ustrem’ and ‘GTB-Blyan’, 6 days less than variety ‘Dobrudjanski 7’ and
5 days less than variety ‘Beslet’. The main stem and branches of variety ‘GTBSkitiya’
end with a vegetative bud. The plant is without tendril and no lodging
(IIa type). The hypocotyl is green. The plant height depending on environmental
conditions is within 50 - 60 cm. The pods are located in the upper 4/5 of the plant.
All this makes variety ‘GTB-Skitiya’ suitable for direct harvesting. The leaves are
green, medium rugosity, weak pilosity above and absent below, with a circular to
quadrangular shape and a medium acuminate apex. The flowers are with white
standard and wings, green keel and medium bract. The pods are medium long
and medium width, elliptical to avoid, with small ratio of thickness:width, green,
concave, medium curved, slightly truncate apex, with weakly rough texture of
surface, medium long and medium curved beak. The seeds are white, with weak
veining and medium glossines. Longitudinal shape is kidney, and cross shape –
elliptic. The weight of 1000 seeds is 411 ± 18 g, and hectoliter weight is 76.4 ± 1.2
kg. They are with very good taste and cooking time of 125 ± 12 min. The protein
content is 19.0 ± 1.1%.
Key words:Phaseolus vulgaris, a new variety, dry bean, DUS – difference,
uniformity and stability, BFT – biological and farm traits, anthracnose, white mold,
bacterial blight, halo blight, bacterial wilt, harvesting.